What is an example of an oncologic emergency?
Neutropenic fever (NF) is one of the most well-known oncologic emergencies. Up to 80% of patients receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies will develop NF at least once during the course of therapy. Patients with solid tumors are reported to develop NF at a rate of 10–50% during the course of chemotherapy.
What are the most common oncologic emergencies?
The most common oncology emergencies are febrile neutropenia (FN), TLS, malignant hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, SVC syndrome, and brain metastases with increased intracranial pressure (Table 22-14).
Is hypercalcemia an oncologic emergency?
Two oncologic emergencies are hypercalcemia of malignancy and tumor lysis syndrome. Pharmacists play an essential role in appropriately managing the pharmacotherapeutic agents used for prevention and treatment of oncologic emergencies in order to improve quality of life, even in the setting of terminal illness.
Why is superior vena cava syndrome and oncologic emergency?
The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large blood vessel that sends blood from the upper body and head to the heart. SVC syndrome happens when blood flow through the superior vena cava is blocked. SVC syndrome is an oncologic emergency, which is a serious health problem caused by the cancer itself or its treatment.
What are oncologic conditions?
Some of the most common types include: Carcinomas: cancers of the skin or the tissues that line the internal organs. Sarcomas: cancers that develop in connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. Leukemias: cancers originating in the blood or bone marrow. Lymphomas: cancers originating in the immune …
What is a hematologic emergency?
Hematologic emergencies may be defined as sudden or unexpected life-threatening events in clinical hematology and oncology which require immediate action predominantly based on clinical judgements and supported only by investigations that can be expected to produce results rapidly.
How are oncologic emergencies treated?
Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, and intravenous stenting. Epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with dexamethasone, radiation, or surgery. Malignant pericardial effusion, which often is undiagnosed in cancer patients, can be treated with pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window procedure.
What is SVC syndrome?
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is a group of problems caused when blood flow through the superior vena cava (SVC) is slowed down. The SVC is a large vein that drains blood away from the head, neck, arms, and upper chest and into the heart. SVCS is most often seen in people who have cancer.
What are the signs and symptoms of tumor lysis syndrome?
Symptoms of TLS include:
- muscle cramps or twitches.
- numbness or tingling.
- decreased urination.
Why is hypercalcemia a medical emergency?
Severe hypercalcemia is often considered an emergency because of a potential risk of cardiac arrest or coma.
What is considered severe hypercalcemia?
Severe hypercalcemia — Patients with total albumin-corrected calcium >14 mg/dL (3.5 mmol/L) require more aggressive therapy. As described immediately above, patients with an acute rise in serum calcium to more moderate levels who have changes in sensorium (eg, lethargy, stupor) also require aggressive therapy.
What are the major causes of hypercalcemia?
Hypercalcemia is caused by:
- Overactive parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism). …
- Cancer. …
- Other diseases. …
- Hereditary factors. …
- Immobility. …
- Severe dehydration. …
- Medications. …
What are early signs of vena cava?
Superior vena cava syndrome consists of various symptoms due to compression of the SVC (Lepper et al., 2011). Early signs and symptoms include cough, dyspnea, hoarseness, chest pain, jugular vein distention, and edema of the hands, face, and/or neck.
Can superior vena cava cause death?
SVC syndrome is a potentially life-threatening medical condition; however, it is not fatal in the majority of cases . A retrospective literature review including 1986 patients with SVC syndrome between 1934 and 1984 reported only 1 death that could be directly attributed to SVC obstruction .
How long can you live with superior vena cava syndrome?
Patients with SVC syndrome usually have advanced disease and fewer than 10% survive more than 30 months after treatment (1).