Which chemo is most likely to cause a secondary malignancy?

Which of the following agents is most likely to cause a secondary malignancy?

Chemotherapy drugs are most strongly associated with causing secondary leukemias and some solid tumors including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers.

What is secondary chemotherapy?

by Dr. C.H. Weaver M.D. Medical Editor updated 4/2021. Secondary malignancies are cancers caused by treatment with radiation or chemotherapy. They are unrelated to the first cancer that was treated, and may occur months or even 20 -30 years after initial treatment.

Does chemotherapy cause a second cancer?

Some research suggests that chemotherapy and radiation may weaken the immune system making it easier for second cancers to develop. Sometimes chemotherapy that is used to treat the original cancer may cause the bone marrow to make abnormal cells. This might lead to second cancers in some survivors.

What secondary malignancy is commonly associated with radiation therapy?

Ionizing Radiation

Bone and soft-tissue sarcomas are the most frequent SMNs following radiation therapy, but skin, brain, thyroid, and breast cancers also can occur. Radiation doses less than 30 Gy tend to be associated with thyroid and brain tumors, whereas doses greater than 30 Gy can evoke secondary sarcomas.

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How do secondary cancers form?

Sometimes the new cancer is in the same organ or area of the body as the first cancer. For example, someone who was treated for a certain type of colorectal cancer can get another type of colorectal cancer as a second cancer. Or, a second cancer might develop in another organ or tissue.

What causes secondary cancers?

Secondary cancers may occur after chemotherapy, with the most common cancer being leukemia. Drugs which are more likely to cause leukemia include alkylating agents, the platinum drugs, and topoisomerase inhibitors. Some targeted therapy drugs may increase the risk of developing a secondary cancer as well.

What chemo causes secondary leukemia?

Chemotherapy agents that have an increased risk for second cancers include: Alkylating agents (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, lomustine, carmustine, busulfan) Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin)

What are signs that chemo is working?

How Can We Tell if Chemotherapy is Working?

  • A lump or tumor involving some lymph nodes can be felt and measured externally by physical examination.
  • Some internal cancer tumors will show up on an x-ray or CT scan and can be measured with a ruler.
  • Blood tests, including those that measure organ function can be performed.

What are the signs that chemo is not working?

Here are some signs that chemotherapy may not be working as well as expected: tumors aren’t shrinking. new tumors keep forming. cancer is spreading to new areas.

Does chemo cause cancer to spread?

Chemotherapy is used to kill cancer cells and stop tumours from growing – but a new study suggests it could in fact help the disease spread, leading to more aggressive forms of cancer.

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Which cancer has highest recurrence rate?

Some cancers are difficult to treat and have high rates of recurrence. Glioblastoma, for example, recurs in nearly all patients, despite treatment. The rate of recurrence among patients with ovarian cancer is also high at 85%.

Related Articles.

Cancer Type Recurrence Rate
Glioblastoma2 Nearly 100%