Can germ cell tumors spread?
Germ cell tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. The most common sites for metastasis are the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and central nervous system. Rarely, germ cell tumors can spread to the bone, bone marrow, and other organs.
Is germ cell tumors aggressive?
They form in the testicles and ovaries. It’s often an aggressive cancer that spreads quickly to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body. They’re typically treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
What is the cause of germ cell tumor?
The cause of most germ cell tumors isn’t always known. Doctors do know that some medical conditions can make children more likely to develop them. These include: birth defects that involve the central nervous system, genitals, urinary tract, and spine.
Is germ cell tumor curable?
Most ovarian germ cell tumors are treatable. For malignant tumors, the prognosis depends on the tumor’s size and if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
What is the survival rate of germ cell tumor?
The 5-year survival rate for teens ages 15 to 19 is 93%. The survival and cure rates also depend on several factors, including the stage of the disease. The cure rate for children with a stage I or stage II germ cell tumor is 90%. The cure rate for a stage III tumor is 87%.
What percentage of germ cell tumors are malignant?
Malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are uncommon, representing only 3 to 10% of tumors originating in the mediastinum. They are much less common than germinal tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms.
How do they treat germ cell tumors?
Treatment options for germ cell tumors may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy with drugs that kill cancer cells and radiation therapy with powerful energy beams.
Do germ cell tumors grow fast?
There are two types of germ cell tumors that start in the gonads, or reproductive organs: seminomas, which are slower-growing, and nonseminomas, which are faster-growing tumors.
How do you test for germ cell tumors?
In addition to a physical examination, the following tests may be used to diagnose a germ cell tumor:
- Biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope. …
- Blood tests. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). …
- Ultrasound. …
- Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan. …
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Are germ cell tumors hereditary?
The cause of germ cell tumors isn’t fully known. Some gene defects passed on from parents to children (inherited) may increase the risk for germ cell tumors. Some genetic syndromes can cause abnormal growth of the male and female reproductive systems.
Where do germ cell tumors arise from?
Germ cell tumors arise in the ovaries (in girls), the testes (in boys), and in several other locations, including the lower back (common in infancy), the abdomen, the chest, and within the brain. Germ cell tumors starting within the brain are discussed further under Brain Tumors.