Who is at risk for developing tumor lysis syndrome?


What causes tumor lysis syndrome?

The tumor lysis syndrome occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, either spontaneously or in response to therapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia.

Which risk factor is associated with the development of tumor lysis syndrome?

The factors that increase risk of tumor lysis syndrome include elevated LDH, extensive bone marrow involvement, pre-existing renal disease and reduced urinary output, advance age, and the use of drugs that increase serum uric acid such as alcohol, thiazide diuretics, levodopa.

In which type of cancer is tumor lysis syndrome most likely to occur?

This syndrome is most common in people with blood-related cancers, including some leukemias and lymphomas.

When does tumor lysis syndrome happen?

Tumour lysis syndrome usually occurs at the start of chemotherapy when a large number of tumour cells are destroyed. It can occur within a few hours of treatment, but it is most often seen 48–72 hours (2–3 days) after treatment starts.

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How is Tumour lysis syndrome treated?

In general, treatment of TLS consists of intensive hydration, stimulation of diuresis, and, more specifically, in the use of allopurinol and rasburicase.

Is tumor lysis syndrome fatal?

The syndrome characterized by these metabolic derangements is known as tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). TLS can cause life-threatening conditions and even death unless appropriately and immediately treated.

How do you prevent tumor lysis syndrome?

To help prevent TLS, assess patients undergoing chemotherapy for risk factors at baseline and monitor them during and after the start of treatment as ordered. The mainstays of preventive care are hydration and allopurinol and recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase).

Is tumor lysis rare?

Acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS), which occurs spontaneously, without cytotoxic therapy, is a rare condition. Spontaneous TLS (STLS) has been seen most commonly in lymphoma and leukemia.

Which metabolic disorders can occur because of tumor lysis syndrome?

The metabolic derangement associated with tumor lysis syndrome are hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperuricemia.

Can tumor lysis syndrome occur without chemotherapy?

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) presenting in absence of chemotherapy is a rare occurrence. One of the true oncological emergencies, it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. TLS is a phenomena usually associated with tumor cell death after treatment.

Which treatment strategy increases the risk of developing tumor lysis syndrome?

The risk is particularly high when patients have very high serum phosphorus levels and require intravenous calcium to treat symptomatic hypocalcemia. High solute concentration, low solubility, and slow urine flow make crystallization more likely and therefore increase the risk for tumor lysis syndrome.

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Can a tumor break apart?

About 90 percent of cancer deaths are caused by tumors that have spread from their original locations. This process, known as metastasis, requires cancer cells to break loose from their neighbors and from the supportive scaffold that gives tissues their structure.